Author Tips

Papers submitted to the International Journal of Aquacultura Indonesiana (IJAI) are considered for publication on the basis of scientific competence and the significance of the information to aquaculture. Authors should realize, however, that even an important study that is conducted using appropriate methodology may not be accepted for publication if the paper is poorly organized or difficult to understand. Beyond that, papers that are well written will be reviewed quicker and published in less time because there will be fewer revisions. Although most authors are concerned primarily with the acceptability of their paper for publication, there are two other important reasons to be concerned about the quality of your paper. First, the goal of publishing a journal article is to convey information from the writer to the reader. If your paper is difficult to read, other scientists may decide not to waste time trying to read it or, worse, they may read the paper but misinterpret the information. In short, a poorly written paper will not serve the only purpose for which it is written.

There is also an important fiscal benefit to the Society when authors submit carefully prepared manuscripts. Publishing a scientific journal is expensive, and a significant part of that expense consists of charges for copyediting and making corrections at the proof stage. These costs can be dramatically reduced if authors are careful when they prepare papers for publication. Below are some comments and suggestions that will help you avoid some of the problems we routinely find in papers submitted to the Journal.

Make sure that your paper conforms to the format outlined in our "Checklist for Manuscript Preparation.
Books about writing help develop your general writing style. However, each scientific journal has specific requirements (which vary from journal to journal) for the format and organization of manuscripts submitted for peer review. The formatting guidelines for manuscripts submitted to our Journal are listed in a "Checklist" printed on the last two pages of every issue of the Journal. A copy of the "Checklist" is also posted at this website. You must submit a completed copy of the "Checklist" with your original submission..

Proofread your manuscript carefully to make sure that all typographical errors are corrected, that the text says exactly what you want it to say, and that all data entries in tables and figures are correct
We do not allow changes at the proof stage unless they are needed to correct errors made during typesetting or composition. So make sure that the final version of the manuscript that you send the editor is perfect in every respect..

Make sure that the title page of your paper is in the correct format.
The manuscript title page should be the easiest part of a scientific paper to prepare, yet improper title page format is one of the most common problems in papers submitted to the Journal. Our copyeditor spends a considerable amount of time rewriting title pages so that they will be typeset correctly. An example of the proper title page layout is presented at the end of these guidelines. Note that the corresponding author is assumed to be the first-listed author unless there is a footnote to the contrary. To reduce ambiguity in indexing services, be sure to identify authors by at least one name (not just initials) in addition to the surname (family name). Example: use "Craig S. Tucker" instead of "C. S. Tucker." And do not abbreviate institutional affiliations in author's addresses. Examples: use "Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México" instead of "UNAM"; use "International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management" instead of "ICLARM."

References to specific equipment or proprietary products must include the name and address (city, state or territory, and country) of the manufacturer or producer of the product.
Here is an example: "Dissolved oxygen was measure with a YSI Model 51 polarographic oxygen meter (Yellow Springs Instrument Company, Yellow Springs, Ohio, USA)."

Software used to conduct statistical analyses are tools and should be referenced like equipment, rather than as supporting evidence.
A correct citation for a statistical analysis might be "Data were analyzed by paired-comparison t-test (Steel and Torrie 1960) using SAS Version 6.1 software (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA)." In this example, the text by Steel and Torrie is referenced as supporting the choice of that particular statistical analysis and SAS is referenced only as the supplier of the tool used to conduct the analysis. The in-text reference to SAS is not, therefore, listed in the Literature Cited.

Make sure references are in the correct order in the Literature Cited.
The following rules apply:
References are listed alphabetically by first author's surname. If two or more by the same author are listed, ordering is by date (Example, Jones, A. K. 1996 precedes Jones, A. K. 1998) ! If two or more works by the same first author are listed, ordering is as follows:
• all works published as single author (ordered by date), then
• all works published with two authors (alphabetized within this grouping), then
all works published with three or more authors (alphabetized within this grouping). Here is an example sequence determined by these rules:
Allman, D. 1972
authors share the same surname, then the ordering is determined by a letter-by-letter comparison of the first author's initials (Example: Jones, A. K. precedes Jones, B. S.) If two or more works
Allman, G. 1970
Clapton, E. 1970
Clapton, E. 1975
Clapton, E. and J. Hendrix .1972
Clapton, E. and A. King. 1970
Clapton, E., J. Hendrix, J. Page, and E. Vedder. 1973
Clapton, E., C. Santana, and K. Richards. 1987
Clapton, E., P. Townshend, and G. Harrison. 1971
Knopfler M. 1980
Vedder, E. 1992

Figures should be printed one per page, without page numbers or captions.
Captions should be on a separate page titled "Figure Legend." Each figure should be alone on a page. In pencil, lightly write the figure number in the lower right-hand corner of the figure. Do not insert figures into the text; do not put a page number on the figure; do not put a caption on the figure; and do not staple the figure to the manuscript. All figure captions should be listed sequentially on one page titled "Figure Legend."

Make sure that all illustrations are essential.
Computer graphics programs have made it easy to prepare visually appealing graphs and other line drawings. This convenience has a negative consequence, however, because many authors now use graphics when information can be more effectively presented in another way. For example, authors often use graphs to present data that are better suited for presentation in tables. Use graphs when the information is visual; that is, when the data show trends or when illustrations make large data sets coherent and interesting. If the goal is simply to present numbers, especially if the goal is to present exact numbers, then the data are best presented in tables. And never present the same data in tables and graphs: choose one or the other based on the most effective means of conveying the information to the reader. Another common misuse of graphics is when graphs, especially bar graphs, are used to present only a few data points. Such information can often be presented in one sentence in the text, with considerable savings in expensive journal space.

Make sure that illustrations will withstand the photographic reduction required when the article is composed for printing in the Journal.
Graphs that look great when printed on full-sized paper may be incomprehensible when reduced to the size needed to fit them on a journal page. Simple graphs and figures are usually reduced to one-column width, which is approximately 7 cm (2.75 inches) wide. Complex figures, such as those containing several graphs within a single illustration, are usually printed across two columns, which is still only 14 cm (5.5 inches) wide. Thus, it is important to prepare illustrations so they look good when reduced to those smaller sizes. Use a type size large enough to be legible when reduced, do not present too much information in a single figure, and do not use hair-thin lines, small symbols, finely textured fill patterns, or other graphics that may disappear or become faint or indefinite when the illustration is photoreduced. Examples of handsome illustrations (as well as a good many abominations) abound in scientific journals: study them and try to emulate the style of those illustrations that are particularly effective.